A Theory for Cosmological Motions in Spacetime

By D. Gilbertson(email)(homepage)

 

Abstract

The present theories in Science of General Relativity, Special Relativity, and Quantum Mechanics do not explain the orientation of rotation.  Additionally, General Relativity uses initial values to setup a spatial existence upon which motions and time are calculated.  There is no present theory to derive these initial conditions from a state of nonexistence to a point of present expected existence.

There is the concept of Cosmological expansion which requires General Relativity methods of calculation.  This concept is well accepted in the scientific community. http://www.astronomycafe.net/anthol/expan.html

This is the concept of space itself having motion.  One of the effects of expanding space is that an object can be moving at a velocity away from an observer as measured by red shift but will experience a time dilation effect that differs from a direct calculation using the mathematics of Special Relativity.  General Relativity is needed for this even in the case of two objects moving at what is observed to be a constant velocity. 

The concept proposed here is that the motion of space has a more complex dynamic than presently considered.  A more fully relativistic space dynamic is proposed.  Several hypothesis are considered which reveal a number of questions that need to be answered.  Some potential resultant phenomenon of complex motional space relate directly dark energy and dark matter effect.

1         Present Physics Concepts for Cosmological Motion

How General Relativity handles the Cosmological Motion of space is of great importance in determining if there are any more needs for the present theory.  The following excerpt gives a description of limits of General Relativity as a fully relational theory and how initial conditions are used in its calculations.

 “Such examples make it clear that general relativity is not a relational theory of motion.  In other words, general relativity does not correlate all physical effects with the relations between material bodies, but rather with the relations between objects (including fields) and the absolute background metric, which is affected by, but is not determined by, the distribution of objects (except arguably in closed cosmological models).  Thus relativity, no less than Newtonian mechanics, relies on spacetime as an absolute entity in itself, exerting influence on fields and material bodies.  The extra information contained in the metric of spacetime is typically introduced by means of boundary conditions or ‘initial values’ on a spacelike foliation, sufficient to fix a solution of the field equations.”

http://www.mathpages.com/rr/s4-01/4-01.htm

 

Other references

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metric_expansion_of_space

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friedmann-Robertson-Walker_metric

 

1.1        The Foundation for Cosmological Motion Formulation

This paper proposes an old theory for formulating such a mechanics with a new concept added to make it viable.  Starting with the thought that space has no relational sense without the presence of matter and energy.  The old theory is:

q      The absolute spacetime we experience with respect to linear motion and rotation is totally formulated by the motions of matter and perhaps energy.

There is one more new concept needed to complete the picture.  The essence of this concept is tied to the Newton’s rotating bucket principle.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bucket_argument

An object can determine its state of rotation and no rotation based on felt internal forces. When an object experiences no rotation, the object also observes that the average motion of all matter of the universe is not moving in a rotational or orbital sense.  In short zero rotation is aligned to all matter in the universe.  This is true by measurement to a high accuracy.  It is expected to be true in general. 

The terminology “zero rotation vector” is introduced here to describe the state an object is in when it determines itself to not be rotating.  More will be described on this later to give it more detail.

Why is it that objects in the universe to a very large degree would have the same zero rotation vector which is aligned to a vector which all matter in the universe? There are three main potential answers to this.  It could be a given constant, the sum of present simultaneous influences, or the sum of influences over a historically stored basis.

Knowing the zero rotation vector at a point gives us information about the overall average zero rotation of matter in the universe.  General and Special Relativity indicates no information can be transmitted faster than the speed of light.  Yet rotational alignment gives us some information about all matter in the universe.  How can there be information at a point in space about the general motion of all matter in space and yet information cannot be transmitted at the speed of light?  The sum of present simultaneous influences is therefore disregarded by this principle.

As a given constant all matter would automatically align to it.  However, Cosmological expansion indicates space itself can move.  If space can move in an expansion motion why would it not also be able to take on different rotational values?  It likely would be able to therefore constant of nature is disregarded.

This leaves the summation of historical influences.  The historical value concept is the proposal here.  How does something keep a historical value?  It does so by being able to store something.  How is something stored? Matter in motion puts something at the point.  The something stored at the point is able to effect the motion of matter.  Everything in physics relates via one concept, energy.  

Energy is something that can exists in different forms.  There is energy in the form of photons, in relative motion, and in mass.  One may say there is energy in electric, magnetic, and gravitational fields.  An additional form of energy that accounts for orientation would add another dimension to the list of forms in which energy may exist. 

This is brings the main new concept:

q      Cosmological Motion Orientation is a form of stored energy

1.1.1       Particle Physics and Fields

Quick side discussion for those given to particle physics explanation of life.

Particle physics boils all forces down to strictly the interaction of particles and photons.  Fields are considered to be mathematical interactional properties of particles and photons.  This includes the electromagnetic force.  However, the discussion and solution of electromagnetic force in terms of fields yields accurate results.

If a specific electromagnetic problem is easier to discuss and solve in terms of a field then that is the typical course for a physicist solution.  The same is should be considered here.  The problem at hand is easier to solve via strict discussion of the motion of space.  However this is achieved by particles and photons in the particle physics sense is left for others to ponder.

1.2        Energy in the Cosmological Orientation and the Big Bang

For a truly relational physics one must start with a void universe.  This would mean no initial orientation.  The  present motion matter may has only small effects on this framework.  Therefore there must be a relatively strong sense of orientation built in to a point in space.  This would indicate that for the orientation to be formed from void it would require a large amount of energy.  This leaves the initial moments of the big band as the one span of time during which such orientation could be established.

q      The absolute spacetime we experience with respect to linear motion and rotation was set into a pure relative non-absolute space during the initial moments of the big bang.

So the thought here is that the energy contained in the orientation framework formulates the structure of spacetime that is used by General Relativity and that framework was largely setup during the initial moments of the big bang.

1.3        Energy in the Orientation

The concept has been put forth that the orientation experienced is a form of energy.  The motions of matter and energy are formulated in the context of this orientation.  They may move in such a way that energy would be exchanged with the energy of orientation but this is only a minor way.  After the initial inrush of energy into the orientation from the immense energy of the big bang, single objects now only a small effect on changing the orientation.

By analogy the stored energy formulating the spatial orientation is like a bridge.  A bridge is a form of stored energy.  It performs no or little work on the objects like cars that cross on it.  Yet cars use this form of stored energy to create a path upon which they can traverse.

1.4        Matter, Gravity, and the Energy in the Cosmological Orientation

General Relativity predicts frame dragging.  This effect is to change the rotational orientation of space based on the rotation of a very powerful gravitational source.  Gravity is therefore predicted to have an effect on the motion of spacetime and thus the orientation of space.

The theory for a mechanics of orientation formation then is that matter via its gravitational field may influence the energy stored in the orientation.  At the beginning of the big bang there would be very small if any orientation.  The new presence of all the matter and energy in the universe would quickly inrush energy to some orientation balance point.

1.4.1       Variations in the Orientation and Potential Effects

The main concept is that during in the initial moments of the big bang matter set an orientation into the void of space.  There would be a large effect biased according to the overall average of motion.

1.4.1.1      Expansion Effect

The matter was expanding at an extreme rate.  If the expansion was accelerating then the orientation of space itself would be acceleration.  That is two objects in different points in space would be accelerating apart from each other.  This would be natural motion.  It would require force to slow the acceleration not maintain it.  This has some very interesting potential for dark energy explanations.

1.4.1.2      Rotation Effect

Additionally variants in rotation in local zones where matter has a variant in rotation would set in a variation in the rotational orientation.  Galaxies have an overall rotation.  By conservation of angular momentum this rotational energy has existed from the earliest moments when the matter which was to eventually form into a Galaxy was first becoming isolated in the primordial mix of matter and energy.  Galaxies therefore may have a rotational orientation variant aligned to the general rotation of matter in a Galaxy.  This has some interesting possibilities for explanations which will be discussed later.  In short it has some dark matter effect.

1.4.1.3      Additional Expansion Effect

Additionally, if there is an energy in the rotational component of orientation then it is likely that two rotational orientation zones would repulse each other to keep total energy conserved.  Another potential dark energy effect.

1.4.2       Strength of a Gravitational Field as it Passes Through Variations in Orientation

If is proposed that the Gravitational field will perform work to align the orientation of space according initially to the motion of its source.  As it moves through a differential change in orientation, it carries with it a differential force for orientation alignment.  This effect would likely reduce the gravitational field strength as it performs work in aligning rotational orientational spaces.  As gravity moves into an accelerated orientation space it may gain strength as the space looses relative energy the gravitational field may gain strength.

2         Summary

The concept has been proposed that the acceleration and rotational orientation experienced is a form of energy.  That the motions of matter and perhaps energy set up this orientation via gravity with the greatest influence happening during the initial moments of the big bang.  This results in a property for space that it has a strong continuation of historical influences.

An accelerating space cosmos could have acceleration as natural motion where force is required to reduce the acceleration. Rotational variances would be setup in this manner would have an alignment to galactic rotational motion.

Some considerations were given about the interactions of different rotational spaces.  The interaction of rotational spaces would likely have a repulsion effect as energy in relative rotational motion differences is reduced as alignment is forced. 

These concepts open some potential for this theory to have dark energy and dark matter effects.  The following paper investigates the consequences of a linear and rotational variant spatial orientation cosmos.

Implications of Cosmological Motions in Spacetime

Paper discussing the implication of Cosmological motions in spacetime and how it account for Dark Energy and possibly Dark Matter effects